Masugata, A masugata is a double, right-angle turn built into a street for defensive reasons. The turns usually ran between stone or palisade fortifications, giving defenders a clear opportunity to slaughter an advancing enemy who would be forced to slow down as they negotiated the obstruction. Because of the fortifications, masugata also prevented the enemy from seeing the way ahead and anticipating their next move. Masugata were common features of castle towns and post-towns along the old highways like the Nakasendo
A time capsule buried nearly 30 years ago to commemorate the World Exposition in Osaka in 1970 was unearthed in mid-March. The cylindrical container measuring 1.3-meters high and 1.0 meter in diameter was buried nine meters under the ground near Osaka Castle in January 1971. The 2,098 items placed in the capsule were chosen to show how people lived at the time of EXPO 70, which drew 64 million visitors from all over Japan and the world. Among the items buried were a portable radio, a tape of Japanese pop tune "Blue Chateau," a household account book, food for astronauts, and a fiberscope to look inside the stomach. Also capsulized were the seeds of grains like rice and wheat, such vegetables as tomatoes, corn, and Japanese radish, and trees like cedar and Japanese cypress. The capsule will be unsealed in mid-April, after it has had a chance to get used to fresh air for about three weeks. For about six months after that, experts will carefully examine what change, if any, these items have undergone during the 30 years under the ground, before the capsule is sealed again and buried at the same site on November 23. The capsule will then remain underground for another 100 years before it is reopened in 2100
The construction of Osaka Castle (大阪城, Ōsakajō) started in 1583 on the former site of the Ishiyama Honganji Temple, which had been destroyed by Oda Nobunaga thirteen years earlier. Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended the castle to become the center of a new, unified Japan under Toyotomi rule. It was the largest castle at the time.
However, a few years after Hideyoshi's death, Tokugawa troops attacked and destroyed the castle and terminated the Toyotomi lineage in 1615. Osaka Castle was rebuilt by Tokugawa Hidetada in the 1620s, but its main castle tower was struck by lightening in 1665 and burnt down.
It was not until 1931 that the present ferro-concrete reconstruction of the castle tower was built. During the war it miraculously survived the city wide air raids. Major repair works gave the castle new glamor in 1997.