Jerusalem - the city of peace, where God will dwell. At least if we refer to how the Bible views the city. According to the Quran, this is the Holy, al-Quds, where Muhammad went up to heaven on his night journey, and later led a prayer for the prophets of God, where the Aqsa mosque is erected today.
However, archaeological findings hint at the city originally being a settlement devoted to the Canaanite god, Shalem, hence the name Urushalim, which appears in the Armana letters of Abdi-Heba.
The history of Jerusalem is the subject of countless books. However, these books often only see the city from one point of view, either archeological, according to Jewish, Christian, or Muslim tradition, or in context of the modern conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
Jerusalem is all of these, and more. Unfortunately people are often only relating to Jerusalem from either of the points of views above, rather than to approach the city in her own right.
From being inhabited by a pre-Israeli people, which most likely was part of the Canaanite nations, it would later become the center of the Israeli people, though whether they themselves were Canaanites first, is a matter of discussion.
By the middle of the first millennia BCE, Jerusalem was Jewish. Though the city was d would be conquered by surrounding empires, the Jewish character of the city would remain. Only after the Roman expulsion of the Jews, and later Christianing of the Roman empire, did the city take on a Christian character, that is, churches were built, the official religion would be Christian, Christian pilgrims would arrive from all the known world.
This Christian character was however particularly Byzantine, the empire which survived the Roman empire, though the capital would be in Constantinople (modern day Istanbul).
With the Arab conquest of the city in the 630s CE, the city became an Islamic city, which over the years has had a lot of different particular Islamic architecture, from the Aqsa mosque to the Ottoman City Wall.
Today the city is dominated by three religions, namely Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. These religions have each their own quarters, though there are two Christian quarters, namely the Armenian quarter, and the (Arab) Christian quarter. Were the Christian quarter reminds a lot like the Muslim quarter, with streets packed with privately owned shops and hostels, the Armenian quarter is more secluded, seemingly more for private dwelling only.
Maybe rather than seeing the Old City being split in four parts, it can give sense to see it as being separated in three major parts, the Armenian , the Arab (or Palestinian) quarters, and the Jewish quarter. The only thing that really separates the two Arab quarters is the change from Muslim to Christian percularities.
Entering the Jewish quarter one will see the obvious dominance of Jews wandering around, as well as shops being brands, rather than privately owned shops.
Places of Importance in the Old City
There are a lot of things to see in the Old City of Jerusalem, whether of religious or historical importance. All the three great Abrahamic religions have their own places, some of them contested, particularly the Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Aqsa Mosque, and the Dome of the Rock, just to mention some of the most known places.