15 Of The Best Photography Composition Rules

When I was first starting out in my photography journey I was blissfully unaware of the impact composition could have on my images. I didn’t have any training in photography composition rules. 

Looking back, the majority of my photos at the time were center composed and lacking in creativity.

Fortunately, I had a wonderful mentor who taught me the rules of composition; how to use them and how to break them. Now I notice these photography composition rules everywhere–in photographs, film, art, architecture, and nature.

What Is Photography Composition?

Photography Composition is a term for the formal structure of works of art. The term composition refers to the relationships between the elements of a photograph. These include:

  • The arrangement of objects and their geometric relationships
  • Perspective and lines (real as well as imagined)
  • Principles of organization such as symmetry, grouping, structure, grid, and contrast
  • light and color

In this article, we’re going to explore a few examples where we can see different rules of composition coming to fruition. That way you can apply them to your own photography and start taking more compelling photos.

1. The Rule of Thirds

Skill Level:  Beginner

How to Use it: The rule of thirds is one of the most basic photography composition rules, and the most widely used. The idea being the human eye is more interested in images which are divided into thirds, with the subject falling along one of the dividing lines.

Most DSLRs have a setting that will show you the rule of thirds gridlines in camera. If yours doesn’t, you can use your focus points, or your own judgment to divide your image into thirds.

Rule of Thirds grid lines on a child portrait
Rule of Thirds gridlines – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

When photographing people it’s ideal to place their face, or the eye closest to the camera, on the intersecting lines. If they’re looking away from the camera, make sure they’re looking into the frame rather than out of it.

While the rule of thirds is a widely used photography composition rule, it can seem lackluster at times. Feel free to get creative and break the rule of thirds by placing the central element in your image in the corners, edges, or center of the grid, like this:

A red flower photograph. composed breaking the rule of thirds
Photo by Paisley Layne Photography
photography composition tricks
Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

2. Leading Lines

Skill Level:  Beginner

How to Use it: Leading lines are elements which guide the viewer’s eye through an image to your subject. These can be lines that are curved, straight, diagonal, converging, or otherwise.

If the leading lines in an image are not clearly defined, the viewer’s gaze may wander and the impact of the image is lost. Leading lines can be found in nature, such as a path winding through the trees, or can be man-made such as a fence lining a field of wildflowers.

a bride standing in a curved staircase
Curved leading lines – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography
Leading lines on a wall
Leading lines on a wall – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

3. Golden Ratio

Skill Level:  Advanced

How to Use it: The golden ratio is very similar to the rule of thirds but is considered to be an even more eye-pleasing ratio. While the rule of thirds is based on a 1:1:1 frame, the golden ratio is based on a 1:1.618 frame.

A photograph taken using the golden ratio composition rule.
The golden ratio is considered even more eye-pleasing

It comes from the mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci, who noticed there was an absolute ratio found in nature that’s unequivocally pleasing to the human eye. This is considered the golden number and has been used in art and design for centuries.

The grid used for creating a golden ratio composition is similar to the rule of thirds grid. However, the intersecting lines are much closer to the middle of the frame drawing the viewer’s eye to a more central element.

Golden Ratio - Horizon falls on lower line
Golden Ratio – Horizon falls on lower line – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

4. Golden Spiral

Skill Level:  Advanced

How to Use it: This Fibonacci guy was quite the thinker. The Golden Spiral is also part of his work and was developed using a sequence of squares. There are points on each of the squares, which determine the path of the spiral. This photography composition method works so well because it creates a natural flow in the photograph, guiding the viewer’s eye right where it needs to go.

the golden ratio is more eye-pleasing than the rule of thirds
Golden Spiral - Photo by:Paisley Layne Photography
Golden Spiral – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography
Golden Spiral - Photo by: John Lemleux
Golden Spiral – Photo by John Lemleux

5. Golden Triangle

Skill Level:  Advanced

A little more dynamic than the rule-of-thirds is the rule of the golden triangle. The concept derives from the “golden section,” in which mathematicians, architects, and artists have discovered the ideal ratio for design is 1:1.618. They have found this ratio throughout nature, man-made objects, buildings, and other forms of classical art.

A portrait photo taken using the golden triangle composition rule.

So, how do you construct it and apply it to your photography? Here’s an example.

How to Use it: First, you draw a diagonal line from the bottom-left of the frame to the top-right. Then draw another diagonal line that intersects the first line at a 90-degree angle. It’s called the perpendicular line. Note that you can also do this the other way round! Again, put the objects deserving attention in the intersection points or let their outlines follow the imaginary lines we just drew.

Golden ratio superimposed on an art work by Franz Snyder's fighting dogs
An example of the Golden Triangle ratio superimposed on an artwork “Fighting dogs” by Franz Snyder.

6. Depth of Field

Skill Level:  Beginner

How to Use it: How you choose to use depth of field in your image is largely dependent on the type of image you’re creating. In portraits, use a wide aperture (small f-stop number) to blur out the background and/or foreground. This technique will isolate the subject.

A narrow depth of field helps to isolate the subject and draw viewer attention to it.

In contrast, using a wide depth of field for landscape images (narrower aperture – higher f-stop number), keeps a larger portion of the image in focus and adds context to the subject.

a landscape photo taken with a large depth of field.

The amount of blur or shallow depth of field you’re able to achieve in your image is due in large part to the lens you’re using.

The basic kit lens included with a DSLR camera typically has a maximum aperture of f 4.0. Whereas prime and high-end zoom lenses often have a maximum aperture as low as f1.4 and f1.2 which creates a deeper blur effect and very shallow depth of field.

portrait photo of a couple taken using a Shallow depth of field
Shallow depth of field (f/2.2) – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography
A photo of a wedding ring with background bokeh.
Shallow depth of field (f 1.8) – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

7. Framing

Skill Level:  Beginner

How to Use it: Framing in photography is exactly what it sounds like–you’re creating a visual “picture frame” within your image to draw focus to your subject. The frame can be natural such as tree branches or a rock formation. It can also be architectural such as a doorway, window, or arch. For example, when taking portraits, using the subject’s arms to frame the body and face helps to draw attention to key elements.

Related Article: Best Digital Picture Frames

a women posing inside a natural frame of tree branches
Natural framing using trees – Photo by: Paisley Layne Photography

Finding frames while shooting is sort of like being on a really creative scavenger hunt. You’re constantly looking for new ways to frame your subject or finding creative tools to incorporate.

diy photogrpahy composition tricks
Using fabric to create a frame – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

If you’re unable to find natural frames for your subject you can add your own frames to the image. Wrapping sheer or light fabric around your lens can create a subtle haze around your subject. You can also find bare tree branches or twigs to hold in front of your lens to frame your subject. There are no limits to what you can use to create new and interesting frames.

A model posing inside an open arch
Framing using an open arch – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

8. Fill the Frame

Skill Level:  Beginner

How to Use it: The compositional idea of filling the frame allows you to crop out distracting elements of the image. This gives importance to the main subject.  When you’re using this rule, you’re essentially removing any context the background may provide.

For example, if you have a child that’s standing in a crowded park you can zoom in closely, allowing the distracting elements to disappear and the focus to fall on the child. However, if the child is standing in a park surrounded by friends and family for a birthday party, the background elements help tell a story and should be included.

A toddler and a sibling filling the frame of a portrait photo
Fill the Frame – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

Filling the frame can make an image feel overly crowded, so take caution when deciding how much of the frame to fill.

A female model posing. Frame filled according to the fill the frame composition rule.
Fill the Frame – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

9. Negative Space

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it:  Negative space is the space surrounding the main subject in an image.  The space in the image is just as important as the subject itself because it gives the subject “breathing room” and can set the mood or convey an emotion.

Negative space helps eliminate distracting elements in an image and gives the subject space to “move” when motion is involved.

A photo of a tree composed using the negative space photography composition
Negative Space – Photo by Hanson de Sade

On that note, if the subject is looking away from the camera, it’s helpful to have them looking into the negative space, rather than away from the space. Look at the photo below. Do you see how the model is looking to the right, into the negative space? If she had her head turned the other direction, the balance would have felt off.

It’s important to consider these fine details when you’re shooting because they can make a big difference.

A model posing according to the Negative Space photography composition rule
Negative Space – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

10. Rule of Odds

Skill Level:  Intermediate

The eyes are drawn to images that contain an odd number of elements rather than those with an even number. At least that’s the theory behind the rule of odds. Additionally, it states the human eye is also naturally drawn to the center of a group. If there are only two objects in an image, the eye will fall between the two objects. If you want an element of your images to stand out, place it between the other two objects, the eye naturally lands on it instead of empty space.

An example of rule of odds photography composition.
I tried this still life photo lots of different ways, but this image, with three raspberries, worked best – the rule of odds in action. Photo by Helen Hooker

How to Use it: This seems like a simple enough concept when working with objects you can manipulate, but finding natural elements that meet the rule of odds can be slightly more challenging. Fortunately, the more time you spend looking for these occurrences, the easier it will to spot them!

Three apples on grass composed using the Rule of Odds photography composition rule.
Rule of Odds – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

11. Viewpoint

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it:  Viewpoint refers to the position in which a photograph is taken. It determines the position the viewer takes when looking at the image. Changing viewpoints is one of the easiest ways to dramatically change the mood of an image. Shooting from a low viewpoint can distort the size of an object and make it appear larger and more dominant, thus creating a diminutive feeling for the viewer.

A photo of the Eiffel tower taken with a perspective photo composition rule
Viewpoint -low- Photo by Jim Rhodes

On the other hand, shooting from a higher viewpoint can cause the subject to appear smaller and create a sense of dominance for the viewer.  Shooting at eye level gives the viewer a chance to see the world at the same level as the photographer. Viewpoint isn’t limited to just high, low, and eye-level. You can also change the perception of an image by shooting from a long distance or up close.

Viewpoint - high - Photo by: Paisley Layne Photography
Viewpoint – high – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

12. Symmetry

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it:  An image that follows the compositional rule of symmetry is one that looks the same on one side as it does on the other.  The image can be split either vertically or horizontally to create a line of symmetry.

a wedding ring photographed by placing it in between bride's shoes.
Symmetry – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

Reflections are an excellent example of symmetry, but other forms of symmetry can be found in nature and man-made structures. When shooting symmetrical images, shoot from the center of the structure and make sure the camera is parallel to the structure.

church architecture captured using the symmetry composition rule.
Reflections are an excellent example of symmetry. Photo credit Tyler Hendy

13. Patterns

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it: Patterns are all around us, both in nature and in man-made structures. Using patterns in your images creates a sense of rhythm and harmony. Patterns appear when elements such as lines, shapes, colors, or forms repeat themselves. The secret to finding patterns is to look at your subject and image from different angles and viewpoints. The patterns seen in the colorful umbrellas lined up on a beach may not be as obvious when viewed from ground level, but are much more obvious when viewed from your hotel balcony. Move your feet, mix it up a little!

patterns on a beach

You can also find patterns by looking more closely at subjects.

Macro images showcase patterns in nature that are not otherwise noticed.

Light patterns can also make for interesting images, such as the way the sunlight shines through the pillars lining a walkway.

Once you start noticing all the patterns that surround you, it will be hard to see anything else.

A photo of patterns in a plant
Patterns in nature – Photo by J. Brew

14. Balance

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it: Balance in an image is sometimes confused with symmetry, but they are not always the same. While an image can be balanced by having equally weighted elements on either side of the frame, balance can also mean a balance of color, tones, and symmetry.

A city scape photograph taken using the balance of elements compositional rule.
Balance of elements. Image credit Ian Bramham

When using the rule of thirds, it’s common to have one larger, more dominant, subject in the foreground. But this gives the image an unbalanced feel. This is corrected by adding a smaller, less important element in the background.

A couple kissing infront of a movie theatre
Balance – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

15. Color Theory

Skill Level:  Intermediate

How to Use it: Color composition is the art of combining different color elements that match together. Use the color wheel below to identify primary and their secondary counterparts, which creates complimentary colors. For example, blue (primary) and its secondary color orange are considered complimentary.

Complimentary colors blue and orange in a landscape image. Image credit Quang Nguyen Vinh

The use of color can drastically change the mood of your image.

  • Cooler colors (blues, greens, and purples) create a calm and tranquil mood.
  • Warmer colors such as reds, oranges, and yellows create an energetic or happy mood.

Colors can also be used to draw attention to one main element. Adding a pop of color to a de-saturated or monochromatic background creates a strong focal point. Take notice of the colors in the world around you. Notice how different colors make you feel then incorporate those into your photographs.

Use of color to draw focus to one element - Photo by: Paisley Layne Photography
Use of color to draw focus to one element – Photo by Paisley Layne Photography

Composition in Post-Processing

I use Adobe Lightroom to help edit and perfect my image compositions.

In Lightroom, you have the option to choose different crop overlays to help you achieve a perfectly balanced image.

To access these overlays open Adobe Lightroom, click on Tools -> Crop Guide Overlay. Then choose the overlay you want to use.

A screenshot showing how to access the Crop Guide Overlay in Lightroom.
Use the crop guide overlay to help you adjust for composition in post-processing.

Learn The Photography Composition Rules, Then Break Them

Don’t let photography composition rules make you feel like you’re trapped in a box and can’t get out. Rules can be fun, especially when you break them. That being said, there’s a lot to be said for learning the rules first and then finding ways to break them. There’s a really great Picasso quote…

 “Learn the rules like a pro, so you can break them like an artist.” –Pablo Picaso

I personally love this quote because being an artist means having the freedom to create anything you want. So have fun out there! Get creative and push yourself to try new things.

Now that you’ve learned these tips for stunning photos, you’re a better photographer.

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About the author

Kendra Swalls

Kendra Swalls is the owner of Paisley Layne Photography, a premier boutique portrait and wedding studio in the Dallas/Ft Worth area. With a background in education, Kendra incorporates her love for photography with her passion for teaching others through workshops, e-books and tutorials.

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