The balcony observer's 153th report- Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) 構樹(2/2)

by Tsao T-F June. 25, 2019 280 views

< Phylogeography of paper mulberry supports the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis: Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland >

值得一提的是,構樹可以做成樹皮衣(barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian material culture),是南島語族的「共生物種 (commensal species)」

參閱: 樹皮布製作程序 / Tapa making in Fiji and Samoa.(YouTube

構樹是雌雄異株(dioecious),在台灣,構樹多是開花授粉(pollination),結種子再生,屬於有性生殖(sexual reproduction);但生活在太平洋的南島語族(Austronesian)種構樹是用根部萌櫱(ㄇㄥˊ ㄋㄧㄝˋ),屬於無性繁殖(asexual reproduction)的,其先祖在史前時期(prehistoric time)攜帶構樹旅行時,極可能只帶了雌性(female)植株[1],所以曾經有復活節島(Easter Island)居民看到臺灣構樹開花結果的照片時,大吃一驚!

藉由對構樹葉綠體基因組(chloroplast DNA sequences)的研究,台灣學者鍾國芳的團隊從親緣地理學(phylogeography)的角度,佐證了南島語族來自台灣的「出台灣說」(the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis)。

參閱: 植物 DNA 竟記載著歷史!構樹說的南島語族遷徙史(中研院科普媒體:研之有物

其團隊研究成果2015年發表在美國國家科學院刊 (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS) [2]

遺憾的是,目前在台灣,南島文化是個很弱勢的文化,我自己也不會講任何一種台灣原住民語言。

References:

1. Penailillo J, Olivares G, Moncada X, Payacan C, Chang CS, Chung KF, Matthews PJ, Seelenfreund A, Seelenfreund D. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) in the Pacific. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 16;11(8):e0161148.

2. Chi-Shan Chang, Hsiao-Lei Liu, Ximena Moncada, Andrea Seelenfreund, Daniela Seelenfreund, Kuo-Fang Chung. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 3; 112(44): 13537–13542.

兩個月過去了,什麼都沒發生,這一天,其中一顆果子表面突然冒出一點點橘色的肉芽。

兩個月過去了,什麼都沒發生,這一天,其中一顆果子表面突然冒出一點點橘色的肉芽。

A mature fruit of paper mulberry in June on my balcony in Taichung, Taiwan 另一顆果子,多熟了一天,整個橘紅色果肉蹦出來,香甜好吃,鳥及多種昆蟲都愛(所以構樹是自然觀察相當不錯的樹種)。

A mature fruit of paper mulberry in June on my balcony in Taichung, Taiwan 另一顆果子,多熟了一天,整個橘紅色果肉蹦出來,香甜好吃,鳥及多種昆蟲都愛(所以構樹是自然觀察相當不錯的樹種)。

A mature fruit of paper mulberry and a Light-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis) called A-Pui on my balcony in Taichung, Taiwan 我家白頭翁"阿肥"牠們一發現就猛吃,一旦開動,嘴巴中途是停不下來的。

A mature fruit of paper mulberry and a Light-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis) called A-Pui on my balcony in Taichung, Taiwan 我家白頭翁"阿肥"牠們一發現就猛吃,一旦開動,嘴巴中途是停不下來的。

吃到了

吃到了

為了拍照把一片葉子摘掉,滲出白色乳汁(摘自己陽台植物的葉子,沒犯法吧)。

為了拍照把一片葉子摘掉,滲出白色乳汁(摘自己陽台植物的葉子,沒犯法吧)。

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Francesc 6 months, 3 weeks ago

Excellent macros

6 months, 3 weeks ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Francesc 6 months, 3 weeks ago

Thanks, Francesc.

6 months, 3 weeks ago Edited
Bethany Plonski 7 months ago

Beautiful photos, and nice to see A-Pui, as always! This looks very different from the type of mulberry tree I know.

7 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Bethany Plonski 7 months ago

Some sentences in the reference [2] (the 5th paragraph in  Introduction): 
...paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera; also called Wauke in Hawaii) is the only species that has a temperate to subtropical East Asian origin (15, 20, 21). As a wind-pollinated, dioecious tree species with globose syncarps of orange–red juicy drupes dispersed by birds and small mammals, paper mulberry is common in China, Taiwan, and Indochina, growing and often thriving in disturbed habitats (15, 20, 21). Because of its long fiber and ease of preparation, paper mulberry contributed to the invention of papermaking in China in A.D. 105 and continues as a prime source for high-quality paper (20, 21). In A.D. 610, this hardy tree species was introduced to Japan for papermaking (21). Subsequently it was also introduced to Europe and the United States (21). 

So, I think you may have the chance to see the plants in US.

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BRPA4

7 months ago Edited
Bethany Plonski Replied to Tsao T-F 7 months ago

Thank you for letting me know. I will be keeping an eye out for that leaf shape, it's very unique!

7 months ago Edited
Jay Boggess 7 months ago

Beautiful series with fascinating commentary!

7 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Jay Boggess 7 months ago

Thank you! I am happy to introduce the plant.

7 months ago Edited
Jay Boggess Replied to Tsao T-F 7 months ago

smile+1

7 months ago Edited
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