The balcony observer's 326th report- Morphoanatomy, orchid flower (Phal. amabilis, cultivar) 形態解剖

by Tsao T-F June. 16, 2021 414 views

The structure of the orchid flower is very complicated, like a small precision machine, composed of many different small parts. Each small part has its own role. I doubt anyone has such great ability to design this small machine. Is it Da Vinci's secret posthumous unpublished work?

I try to label the names of the various parts on my moth orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis, cultivar). If there is a mistake, please let me know.

蘭花的構造好複雜,像一個精密的小機器,由許多不同的小零件所組成。每個小零件有它們專屬的角色。我懷疑誰有那麼大的本事可以設計這樣的小機器。是達文西的秘密未公開遺作嗎?

我試著幫我的蝴蝶蘭(白花蝴蝶蘭,栽培種)標註上各個部位的名稱。如果有錯,歡迎指正。

 A blooming moth orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis, cultivar) is on my balcony. 一株盛開的蝴蝶蘭(白花蝴蝶蘭,栽培種)在我的陽台。

A blooming moth orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis, cultivar) is on my balcony. 一株盛開的蝴蝶蘭(白花蝴蝶蘭,栽培種)在我的陽台。

Each flower has three sepals and three petals. Among them, the lower petal has a special configuration and is called labellum (lip petal). 每朵花有三片萼片和三片花瓣。其中下花瓣構型特殊,稱作唇瓣。

The labellum 唇瓣

The labellum 唇瓣

The labellum includes the lateral lobes on both sides and the anterior (middle) lobe below. The place where the base protrudes is called the callus. 唇瓣包括兩邊的側葉和下面的前(中)葉。基部突起來的地方叫連體塊。

The end of the gynostemium (column) 合蕊柱的末端

The end of the gynostemium (column) 合蕊柱的末端

The end of the gynostemium (column) is a white anther cap (left panel), and two orange pollinia are exposed after removal of the cap (right picture). 合蕊柱的末端是白色花藥藥蓋(左圖),掀除藥蓋後露出兩顆橘色花粉塊(右圖)。

A wasp specimen on the callus 一隻胡蜂的標本在連體塊上面

A wasp specimen on the callus 一隻胡蜂的標本在連體塊上面

I put a wasp specimen on the callus, which showed that when the nectar was collected, the pollinia stuck on the back of the insect. 我擺一隻胡蜂的標本在連體塊上面,示意花粉塊黏上採蜜的昆蟲的背部。

Comparison: The end of the gynostemium (column) before and after visiting 比較:未被訪蜜的合蕊柱和被訪蜜過的合蕊柱的末端

Comparison: The end of the gynostemium (column) before and after visiting 比較:未被訪蜜的合蕊柱和被訪蜜過的合蕊柱的末端

Comparison: The end of the gynostemium (column) before visiting is a white anther cap, and orange pollinia are faintly revealed (left panel); after visiting the end of the gynostemium is only left with an empty white clinandrium (right panel). 比較:未被訪蜜的合蕊柱的末端是白色花藥藥蓋,隱約透出橘色花粉塊(左圖);被訪蜜過的合蕊柱的末端只剩空的白色藥床(右圖)。

Parts that fall off during visiting. 訪蜜時會脫落的零件。

Parts that fall off during visiting. 訪蜜時會脫落的零件。

The bases of two orange spherical pollinia are two caudiculae (not shown in the picture), a stipe, and a viscidium. 橘色球形花粉塊的基部是花粉柄(不見於圖),膠質柄,以及小黏盤。

The bases of two orange spherical pollinia are two caudiculae (not shown in the picture), a stipe, and a viscidium. 橘色球形花粉塊的基部是花粉柄(不見於圖),膠質柄,以及小黏盤。

The stigma cup is surrounded by column wings on both sides, forming a concavity. 柱頭被兩邊的蕊柱翼包圍,形成凹洞。

The stigma cup is surrounded by column wings on both sides, forming a concavity. 柱頭被兩邊的蕊柱翼包圍,形成凹洞。

When the insect comes for collecting nectar, pollinia on the back can get in, but they can't get out because they are stopped by the rostellum. Pollination is then completed.

昆蟲探頭採蜜時,背上的花粉塊進得去,但出不來,因為被蕊柱先端喙卡住。授粉於是完成。

After two pollinia fall off, their orange caudiculae are exposed respectively.

After two pollinia fall off, their orange caudiculae are exposed respectively.

The stipe has a thin waist and can just pass through the gap in the middle of the rostellum. But the pollinium is too large to pass through the gap to leave the stigma. The viscidium is really sticky, and it won't be dropped away once it gets on your hands or tools.

膠質柄細細有腰身,剛好可以穿過蕊柱先端喙中間的隙縫。但是花粉塊太大了,無法穿過隙縫離開柱頭。小黏盤真的很黏,一沾上手或器具,甩都甩不掉。

Dissected view of a moth orchid (Phalaenopsis) 3 days after pollination 授粉後第三天的蝴蝶蘭剖面圖

Dissected view of a moth orchid (Phalaenopsis) 3 days after pollination 授粉後第三天的蝴蝶蘭剖面圖

花的構造中,具有繁殖功能之器官為雄蕊(含花絲與花藥(anther))與雌蕊(含子房、花柱與柱頭),蘭科植物最大的特徵是雄蕊與雌蕊合生成單一構造的柱狀體,特稱為蕊柱(gynostemium / column),由於子房呈下位配置,蕊柱位於子房之上側,可視為柱頭(stigma)、花柱、花絲、花藥與藥隔的合成器官,而子房則在蕊柱之下,接到花梗。

以多數蘭花的構造而言,蕊柱的上部大多由花絲與藥隔與花柱上端組成一個皿形的構造,中間的空腔即所謂藥床(clinandrium)。蘭花之花藥數目有兩類,單藥類之花藥即座落在此腔室內,雙藥類之拖鞋蘭族,其花藥繫於蕊柱上端兩側,沒有藥床之構造。

蕊柱的下半部大致是花柱的變形,以演化的理論而言,蘭花的柱頭原有三個,孕性的柱頭有兩個,位於柱狀體的腹面上端兩側,為棒狀突起,或為兩個黏質的表面(常合而為一),藏在蕊柱上方的凹洞內,另一個不孕性的柱頭則變化成一隔板狀的構造或突出物,稱為蕊喙(或蕊柱先端喙)(rostellum),位於花藥與柱頭之間,其先端又常化育成黏性的小黏盤(viscidium),以接著花粉塊,蕊喙的隔板作用,尚可防止自花授粉。

雙藥類之花粉粒呈散生顆粒狀,單藥類之花粉則聚合為少數巨大之塊狀體,表面呈蠟質或粉質,稱為花粉塊(pollinia),其數目有二、四或八個,各自分離或側面合生成列,分別儲存於花藥之二或四個腔室中,花粉塊之形狀有球形、卵形、扁盤形、棍棒形等變化,其基部常收縮為細狹無性之花粉柄(caudicle),或接到一共同之膠質柄(stipe)(由蕊喙產生),再接到小黏盤。

參考文獻:

台灣野生蘭多樣性漫談 (作者--樹青)

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John Durham 4 months ago

Beautiful work! Once again, a secondary school would really benefit from your photos and commentary. As a biologist I can tell you, your observations are on point.

4 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to John Durham 4 months ago

Thanks, John. Thanks for your encouragement. I appreciate it!smile

4 months ago Edited
Camellia Staab 4 months ago

Another interesting posting from you. Thanks for sharing such detailed information !

4 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Camellia Staab 4 months ago

You are welcome. Glad you are interested in this.smile

4 months ago Edited
Thomas Thompson 4 months ago

Thanks for sharing it was very interesting

4 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Thomas Thompson 4 months ago

Glad you are interested in the post. Thanks, Thomas.blossom

4 months ago Edited
Antonio Gil 4 months ago

This is a true science lesson, not a photo post. Amazing work of love and patience. Great shots in your previous posts too my friend

4 months ago Edited
Tsao T-F Replied to Antonio Gil 4 months ago

Thanks, my friend. Always like your sweet comments. Your words made me once thought that I was really a scientist. Haha.smile

4 months ago Edited
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